The Impact of International Law on International Cooperation: Theoretical Perspectives

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To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Papers People. Save to Library. An effective strategy An effective strategy should include not only the independent states of the region, but also the Caribbean territories associated to countries outside the region.


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In this bi-regional partnership, the French, British, and Dutch territories in the Caribbean constitute the direct presence of the European Union in the region and, therefore, their increased regional paradiplomacy i. At the same time, they can be viewed as converging points for both the EU and the Caribbean history and culture. Interstate Cooperation Theory and International Institutions. As the title suggests, this dissertation is about an analysis being made to the different existing cooperations that have been made by the international community with the aim of combating maritime piracy in the Indian Ocean.

The main The main objective of this study is to assess the different cooperations that have been made with regards to the problem of piracy in the Indian Ocean, more specifically in Somalia. We compiled a 2-mode data set that recorded country participation in FCTC negotiations, We compiled a 2-mode data set that recorded country participation in FCTC negotiations, as well as the number of individuals per country per year who joined an online tobacco control network.

Network exposure and event history analysis showed that in addition to income, the likelihood of adoption increased with increasing affiliation exposure to FCTC adopters through GLOBALink an online network facilitating communication between tobacco control advocates.

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Public health programs should include a plan for creating opportunities for network interaction; otherwise, adoption and diffusion will be delayed and the investments in public health policy greatly diminished. Diffusion of innovations theory applied to global tobacco control treaty ratification. This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control FCTC.

We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a member online communication forum in existence from to , would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification.

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We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some supp Applying a trust lens to the study of international strategic alliance negotiations.

This paper considers the value of applying a trust lens to the study of international strategic alliance negotiations. This paper considers that, in the context of international strategic alliances, negotiation is not limited to the This paper considers that, in the context of international strategic alliances, negotiation is not limited to the process of reaching an initial agreement, but also includes the implementation and joint value creation phases.

In a context where neither party has the power to enforce values on the other, the process of negotiating values and managing expectations brings the structures of the working relationship into sharp focus illuminating the ongoing process whereby agreed or accepted behavioural values emerge and begin to underpin the collaborative endeavour.

Following a brief cultural diversion to show how the trust lens can illuminate the development of alliance culture, the paper provides an overview of key recent literature on the conception of trust and trust development before returning to a discussion of trust and negotiation and especially of the strategic alliances. Nursing practice issues in Jordan: student-suggested causes and solutions. South-North Partnership for Development.

Empathic perspective taking promotes interpersonal coordination through music. Coordinated behavior promotes collaboration among humans.

The Impact of International Law on International Cooperation: Theoretical Perspectives

To shed light upon this relationship, we investigated whether and how interpersonal coordination is promoted by empathic perspective taking EPT. In a joint music-making task, In a joint music-making task, pairs of participants rotated electronic music-boxes, producing two streams of musical sounds that were meant to be played synchronously. Participants-who were not musically trained-were assigned to high and low EPT groups based on pre-experimental assessments using a standardized personality questionnaire. Results indicated that high EPT pairs were generally more accurate in synchronizing their actions.

When instructed to lead the interaction, high and low EPT leaders were equally cooperative with followers, making their performance tempo more regular, presumably in order to increase their predictability and help followers to synchronize. Crucially, however, high EPT followers were better able to use this information to predict leaders' behavior and thus improve interpersonal synchronization.

Thus, empathic perspective taking promotes interpersonal coordination by enhancing accuracy in predicting others' behavior while leaving the aptitude for cooperation unaltered. When compared to realism, it adds more factors into our field of view — especially a consideration of citizens and international organisations. Most notably, liberalism has been the traditional foil of realism in IR theory as it offers a more optimistic world view, grounded in a different reading of history to that found in realist scholarship. Liberalism is based on the moral argument that ensuring the right of an individual person to life, liberty and property is the highest goal of government.

Consequently, liberals emphasise the wellbeing of the individual as the fundamental building block of a just political system. A political system characterised by unchecked power, such as a monarchy or a dictatorship, cannot protect the life and liberty of its citizens. Therefore, the main concern of liberalism is to construct institutions that protect individual freedom by limiting and checking political power. Liberals are particularly troubled by militaristic foreign policies. The primary concern is that war requires states to build up military power. This power can be used for fighting foreign states, but it can also be used to oppress its own citizens.


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For this reason, political systems rooted in liberalism often limit military power by such means as ensuring civilian control over the military. Wars of territorial expansion, or imperialism — when states seek to build empires by taking territory overseas — are especially disturbing for liberals.

International Relations 101 (#6): Conflict versus Cooperation

Not only do expansionist wars strengthen the state at the expense of the people, these wars also require long-term commitments to the military occupation and political control of foreign territory and peoples. Occupation and control require large bureaucracies that have an interest in maintaining or expanding the occupation of foreign territory. For liberals, therefore, the core problem is how to develop a political system that can allow states to protect themselves from foreign threats without subverting the individual liberty of its citizenry.

The primary institutional check on power in liberal states is free and fair elections via which the people can remove their rulers from power, providing a fundamental check on the behaviour of the government. This allows for checks and balances in the use of power. Democratic peace theory is perhaps the strongest contribution liberalism makes to IR theory.

It asserts that democratic states are highly unlikely to go to war with one another. There is a two-part explanation for this phenomenon. First, democratic states are characterised by internal restraints on power, as described above.

Second, democracies tend to see each other as legitimate and unthreatening and therefore have a higher capacity for cooperation with each other than they do with non-democracies. Statistical analysis and historical case studies provide strong support for democratic peace theory, but several issues continue to be debated. First, democracy is a relatively recent development in human history. This means there are few cases of democracies having the opportunity to fight one another. A third point is that while democracies are unlikely to go to war with one another, some scholarship suggests that they are likely to be aggressive toward non-democracies — such as when the United States went to war with Iraq in Despite the debate, the possibility of a democratic peace gradually replacing a world of constant war — as described by realists — is an enduring and important facet of liberalism.

We currently live in an international system structured by the liberal world order built after the Second World War — The international institutions, organisations and norms expected behaviours of this world order are built on the same foundations as domestic liberal institutions and norms; the desire to restrain the violent power of states. Yet, power is more diluted and dispersed internationally than it is within states. For example, under international law, wars of aggression are prohibited.

There is no international police force to enforce this law, but an aggressor knows that when breaking this law it risks considerable international backlash.

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For example, states — either individually or as part of a collective body like the United Nations — can impose economic sanctions or intervene militarily against the offending state. Furthermore, an aggressive state also risks missing out on the benefits of peace, such as the gains from international trade, foreign aid and diplomatic recognition.

The fullest account of the liberal world order is found in the work of Daniel Deudney and G. John Ikenberry , who describe three interlocking factors:. First, international law and agreements are accompanied by international organisations to create an international system that goes significantly beyond one of just states.

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The archetypal example of such an organisation is the United Nations, which pools resources for common goals such as ameliorating climate change , provides for near constant diplomacy between enemies and friends alike and gives all member states a voice in the international community. Second, the spread of free trade and capitalism through the efforts of powerful liberal states and international organisations like the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank creates an open, market-based, international economic system. This situation is mutually beneficial as a high level of trade between states decreases conflict and makes war less likely, since war would disrupt or cancel the benefits profits of trade.

States with extensive trade ties are therefore strongly incentivised to maintain peaceful relations. By this calculation, war is not profitable, but detrimental to the state. The third element of the liberal international order is international norms. Liberal norms favour international cooperation, human rights, democracy and rule of law. When a state takes actions contrary to these norms, they are subject to various types of costs. However, international norms are often contested because of the wide variation in values around the globe.

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Political Realism in International Relations

Nevertheless, there are costs for violating liberal norms. The costs can be direct and immediate. For example, the European Union placed an arms sale embargo on China following its violent suppression of pro-democracy protesters in The embargo continues to this day. The costs can also be less direct, but equally as significant. For example, favourable views of the United States decreased significantly around the world following the invasion of Iraq because the invasion was undertaken unilaterally outside established United Nations rules in a move that was widely deemed illegitimate.

Most liberal scholarship today focuses on how international organisations foster cooperation by helping states overcome the incentive to escape from international agreements. This often causes confusion as neoliberalism is also a term used outside IR theory to describe a widespread economic ideology of deregulation, privatisation, low taxes, austerity public spending cuts and free trade. The essence of neoliberalism, when applied within IR, is that states can benefit significantly from cooperation if they trust one another to live up to their agreements.

In situations where a state can gain from cheating and escape punishment, defection is likely. However, when a third party such as an impartial international organisation is able to monitor the behaviour of signatories to an agreement and provide information to both sides, the incentive to defect decreases and both sides can commit to cooperate.

In these cases, all signatories to the agreement can benefit from absolute gains. Absolute gains refer to a general increase in welfare for all parties concerned — everyone benefits to some degree, though not necessarily equally. Liberal theorists argue that states care more about absolute gains than relative gains.